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In 1830 Yuhi III died after 33 years of absolute rule. The conquest of Africa by Europe has therefore started from either side of the continent.Mutara Rwugera II succeeded him. Then in 1853 (or 1867?) Is Kigeri IV Rwabugiri which in turn is enthroned. His reign will be particularly violent once he reaches adulthood. We argue the royal favors (Ega clan who managed to marry one of his daughters to the King and Gereka) that initiates a policy of expanding his kingdom despite the civil war in the country between the two main clans. In 1869, the Queen Mother Murorunkwere beats Gereka army and killing his followers murdered the son of his rival before claiming itself to be murdered in turn in 1876 under mysterious circumstances. Curiously, the new ruler will die in mysterious circumstances while Germany has entered into force in his kingdom and forced the king to accept a protectorate. Not without meddle dynastic royal family. Anyway, Death (1895) Kigeri IV benefits the new protector. Without consulting the Royal Council, the Germans (who settled permanently in the country in 1898 with the agreement of Mwami) forcibly called to the throne, Mibambwe IV before promoting the election of his son Yuhi IV Musinga in 1896. A rebellion broke out in May 1911 against Musinga in and will put down a year later due to artillery prusisenne. sovereign Three in one year then the Belgian occupation (1916) will awaken the Tutsi nationalism. If the royal family finally agreed to submit to the Prussians in 1905, it does not matter as long as the Belgians do rain and weather around the Great Lakes (at the end of 1914, the Germans were also Kivu, Lake Tanganyika and North West now Zambia).Some aristocrats challenged the legitimacy of the sovereign and his mother against him Kanjogera Princess, wife of King Mutara II. It will eventually Assistant to the new sovereign. Musinga not admit it and discovers that it tries to restore his father without his knowledge. It even tries to assassinate him. It will react with all the violence of an African ruler. His uncle, his mother, his two wives and his brothers will compromise all executed. Belgium, which has not intervened and administers Rwanda since the defeat of the Germans in 1918 during the First World War have enjoyed this little how to resolve dynastic problems of the country (in 1907, Rwanda was separated administratively from Burundi, Kigali is funded by the German Richard Kandt). And to compel the sovereign to submit the Belgians are neither more nor less than point their guns at his house. Musinga cordially hates these Europeans will be forced to make a bad grace. Fearing anarchy settled in the kingdom, the Belgians decided nevertheless to maintain Musinga his prerogatives, he built a palace and quite exceptional decorate. Only the divine right of life and death over his people is withdrawn.
C) The Belgian colonization
On 24 October 1922, the Belgians decided to unite under a single administration Rwanda and Urundi and agree to support the two monarchies Tutsis at the expense of Hutus. Mibambwe IV who tried to oppose his removal had rebelled but besieged, he ended up committing suicide with her three other son (May 1922). Belgian Prime Resident (since 1919) Pierre Ryckmans will run 6 of the 22 captured rebels). Musinga, who are now just remove his property rights inalienable and sovereign arbiter, finally takes the torch of rebellion against his new protectors. Rejecting Catholicism, advocating polygamy, sovereign Tutsi incurred the wrath of the Church Belge. Rebellions resumed in the colony, far from being a sinecure for the occupant. In 1926, during a year, a messianic movement led by a Hutu, sorcerer of his condition, threatening the stability of Rwanda and an attempt to seize power by a Hutu named Ndungutse general uprising turns between March and April 1928. It pretends to be a half-brother of Musinga and raises people to seize the throne. The Belgians will be hard to watch this nationalist rebellion. Musinga still refuses to convert. His children are baptized 5 January 1930 are driven by the Mwami of the Court. Annoyed, the Belgians finally deposits November 12, 1931. Monsignor Classe which regulates the ecclesiastical life of the colony and the Vice-Governor (since 20 October 1924, the kingdom was included in Urundi neighbor and a few months later annexed to the Belgian Congo) decided to end the monarchy and replacing it with internal administration. The project was soon abandoned. In early 1900, the first missionaries wrote: “We do not listen much these brave Hutu who want above all to throw off the yoke of Tutsi and that is what they are palpable and they want to use us to get there ., but slowly. ” It then meets acquired Belgian parliament and is the son of Musinga Charles Rudahigwa Mutara III (born 1912) as the new sovereign. From a legal point of view, it is a real coup that the Belgians are to operate. Especially now that the word is mandatory on ethnic identity cards. Officially recognize future taxpayers Crown. Mutara III will settle not really constitute this situation and tries to escape this tutelage of the Belgian Catholic Church.The latter has become more and more important in the lives of Rwandans as Hutu Tutsi converted (begun in 1911, the population show little eager to convert). Moreover Mwami Mutara is the first to come to power a Catholic. On the day of his coronation, he thank “Christ the King who gave Rwanda the divine light of the Belgian colonial administration ..”. But religion also provides illuminated in his faith. protectorate in the first half of the twentieth century was dominated by two ethnic majority and ethnic minority Twa pygmies or more commonly called. Tutsi (Royal dominant ethnic group) are in the minority while the Hutus more specialized in agriculture and animal husbandry are the majority. Long before settlers accentuate this difference, the Hutus were considered second-class African Tutsi monarchy. While sharing the same language, they were not allowed to marry among members of ethnic rivals. But we had forgotten or pretended to ignore that it was those Hutus who had baptized this part of the Great Lakes, Rwanda (which aims to expand) The Germans filled the whole Prussian imperial hubris had disregards these differences. For them, it y’avait that colonized peoples and one Empire, one of the German Reich. The Belgians had a radically different design racial. There must have been a je ne sais quoi of Tutsis in Semitic. So the equation was simple. These very large African nature should be affiliated to any European branch and smaller Hutus, ethnic submitted. Quite naturally, the settlers and the Belgian church, supported the Tutsi monarchy. The true Church authoritarian rule in the colony decided that ethnicity must be mentioned in the booklet in her identity as the rights were paired with ethnicity. Monsignor Classe, a prominent representative of the Belgian ecclesiastical authority as we know, decreed that “only the Tutsi to its superior quality and sense of command was clearly indicated to rule unchallenged Rwanda.” Is also determined by their ethnic birth that would be the future of such and such a Hutu or Tutsi. The ruling class to succeed their fathers while the Hutus should only enjoy crafts crafts. Although the seminar was prohibited Hutus who had to settle for only catechumenate. This ethnic difference both politically and economically the existed long before European arrival. Without accepting the ethnic components of Rwanda were satisfied with the order established by the principle of survival of the fittest. Colonization invented therefore no segregation unnamed but strongly accentuated reading instituted racial discrimination in the avowed aim of the operation of the Rwandan soil. The Second World War which broke out in 1939, was one for the kingdom source of conflict more. Requisition of forces of the nation did not like the sovereign Mutara III. The colony is shaken.Considered dangerous come the old Mwami is near June 26, 1940 in Albertville. Germans landed in Kigali were received pat the former sovereign. Doubt that the Nazi regime promised to Musinga regain his crown if he manages to lift his people against the Belgians. Death Yuhi V Musinga January 13, 1944, the end of the conflict (1945), emancipation movements that were created by either side of the black continent aroused the attention of the sovereign and in particular, the sweet siren that he trumpeted the Soviet Union. The Belgian missionaries rightly feared that the king tries to get rid of settlers officially calling the Communists for help. In 1955, Jean Paul Harroy was appointed Governor of the Belgian colonies in Africa. It succeeds the governor convinced Liberal and adapts quickly Claeys advice of Bishop Perraudin, successor of Bishop class. At the dawn of the year 1959, the situation of the ethnic and political province of Rwanda and breaks. 84% are controlled by Hutu 14% Tutsi. All 43 tribal leaders are elected Tutsis and only 10 of the 559 leaders are under Hutus. To avoid ethnic conflicts, the Governor imposes ethnic equity within the Congolese Force Publique and requires all to speak Lingala. However, he refuses that one weapon Tutsis because he sees them as rebellious and perpetual fear that they are using the Belgian arms against the Hutus against the settlers see themselves. Finally, seven officers Belgians chapeauteront 3 companies of 250 African soldiers. On 30 March 1958, the King had appointed a commission composed half of Hutus and Tutsis to study the ethnic problem. The committee will most astonishing conclusion. It simply denied the problem. However, March 24, 1957, 9 intellectuals from all the seminar (Maximilian Niyonzima, Kayibanda Claver Ndahayo, Isidore Nzeyimana, Calliope Mulindaha, Godfrey Sentama, Munyambonera Sylvestre, Joseph and Joseph Habyarimana Sibomana) had issued a manifesto said Hutus. The manifesto is symptomatic of racial segregation that prevailed in the country. Considering themselves as victims of power Tutsi, Hutu claim their emancipation, freedom of expression and equality in administrative positions
Criminal Paul Kagame